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Curating and Gender > Digtial Cliff Notes 

CURATING AND GENDER First Wave: Avant-Gardism 1900-1940s Second Wave: Activism 1940s-1980s Third Wave: Access1990s-Present
Question Behavior Identification Celebration
Method Psychoanalysis Social Reform Equality of Representation
Vision Clinical Gaze and Determinations Judico-Legal Gaze and Persecution Post-Normative Gaze and legal rights
Theory Homosexuality Gay / Lesbianism Queerness / LGBTQPlus
Narrative Deviance (De)Criminalization (Dis)Position
Direction Diagnosis Polticization Mobilization
Space Subculture Coded Communication Performativity
Power Categorization Investigation Visibility
Politic Normativity Paranoia Diversity
Dialectic Institutions / Individuals State / Groups Society / Multiplicity


Primary Dialectic: Thesis: Normativity / Anti-Thesis: Reform-Reassement / Synthesis: Integration 


4 Waves of Pyscho-socio-cultural Development: Maslow, The Hiearchy of Needs and Beyond

First Wave: Avant-Garde, Psychological-Safety | Second Wave: Activism, Safety-Belonging| Third Wave: Access, Belonging-Self-Esteem| Fourth Wave: Self-Esteem, Self-Actualization | Fourth Wave: Self Transendence


1. Question: Behavior

Early moderns definitions of homosexuality mirrored the secular humanist beliefs aligned with science in terms of cataloging, categorizing, and dissecting behaviors in an effort to define what counted as normal and deviant behavior. These initial theories were put forth by Freud, Krafft-Ebing and Ellis and were highly speculative

2. Method: Psychoanalysis

The spread of their influence ended up pathologizing, and in many cases, criminalizing homosexual behavior as something in need of treatment and/or ”cure”. Those homosexuals who could not be cured where often feared as being contagious and undermining the social order while lesbianism was largely considered to be a myth or a passing phase. 

3. Vision: Clinical Gaze and Determination

In 1899, an aesthete of Baltic, Elisar von Kupffer (1882-1942) became known for publishing an anthology of homoerotic literature from antiquity to the present (Lieblingminne and Freundesliebe in der Weltliteratur) that acted as a counterbalance to the theories of Freud, Krafft-Ebing and Ellis.

Kupffer was a poet and painter who rejected all medical theories of homosexuality that pathologized sexual behavior in favor of viewing androgyny and homosexuality as the embodiment of the “union of opposites… and as a state of human perfection.” 

Sigmund Freud's views on homosexuality were complex. In his attempts to understand the causes and development of homosexuality, he first explained bisexuality as an "original libido endowment",[7] by which he meant that all humans are born bisexual. He believed that the libido has a homosexual portion and a heterosexual portion, and through the course of development one wins out over the other. He also believed in a basic biological explanation for natural bisexuality in which humans are all biologically capable of being aroused by either sex. Because of this he described homosexuality as one of many sexual options available to people. Freud proposed that humans' inherent bisexuality leads individuals to eventually choose which expression of sexuality is more gratifying, but because of cultural taboos homosexuality is repressed in many people. According to Freud, if there were no taboos people would choose whichever was more gratifying to them- and this could remain fluid throughout life- sometimes a person would be homosexual, sometimes heterosexual.[8]

Havelock Ellis (1859-1939) was working as a teacher in Australia, when he had a revelation that he wanted to dedicate his life to exploring the issue of sexuality. He returned to London in 1879 and enrolled in St. Thomas’s Hospital Medical School. He began to write, and in 1896 he co-authored Sexual Inversion with John Addington Symonds, his then lover of 6 months. The book was first published in German, and a year later it was translated into English. Their book explored homosexual relationships, and in a progressive approach for their time they refused to criminalize or pathologize the acts and emotions that were present in homosexual relationships.

4. Theory: Homosexuality

The terminology of homosexuality has been a contentious issue since the emergence of LGBT social movements in the mid-19th century. The choice of terms regarding sexual orientation may imply a certain political outlook, and different terms have been preferred at different times and in different places. In English, some terms in widespread use have been sodomiteSapphicUranianhomophilelesbiangaytwo-spirit, same-sex attracted, and homosexual. Some of these words are specific to women, some to men, and some can be used of either. Gay people may also be identified under the umbrella terms queer and LGBT.

Not all terms have been used to describe same-sex sexuality are synonyms for the modern term homosexuality. The word homosexual itself had different connotations 100 years ago than today. Anna Rüling, one of the first women to publicly defend gay rights, considered gay people a third gender, different from both men and women. Terms such as gynephilia and androphilia have tried to simplify the language of sexual orientation by making no claim about the individual's own gender identity. However, they are not commonly used.

Lesbian was not official condemned by the law or pathologized by the medical establishment. Lesbianism was thought to be a passing phase, or something that manifested when a husband did not appear. 

5. Narrative:  Deviance

In the beginning of the 19th century, people began studying homosexuality scientifically. At this time, most theories regarded homosexuality as a disease, which had a great influence on how it was viewed culturally. There was a paradigm shift in the mid 20th century in psychiatric science in regards to theories of homosexuality. Psychiatrists began to believe homosexuality could be cured through therapy and freedom of self, and other theories about the genetic and hormonal origin of homosexuality were becoming accepted. There were variations of how homosexuality was viewed as pathological.[5] Some early psychiatrists such as Sigmund Freud and Havelock Ellis adopted more tolerant stances on homosexuality. Freud and Ellis believed that homosexuality was not normal, but was "unavoidable" for some people.

6. Direction: Diagnosis

Psychology was one of the first disciplines to study homosexuality as a discrete phenomenon. Prior to and throughout most of the 20th century, common standard psychology viewed homosexuality in terms of pathological models as a mental illness.

7. Space: Subculture

Uranism, The Sapphists, Gertrude Stein's Circle, The Bloomsbusy Group, U.S. Salons and Galleries, The Harlem Renaissance, The Lost Generation, The New Women, The Other Surrealists

8. Power: Categorization

The word homosexual translates literally as "of the same sex", being a hybrid of the Greek prefix homo- meaning "same" (as distinguished from the Latin root homomeaning human) and the Latin root sex meaning "sex".

9. Politic: Normativity

The first known appearance of the term homosexual in print is found in an 1869 German pamphlet 143 des Preussischen Strafgesetzbuchs und seine Aufrechterhaltung als 152 des Entwurfs eines Strafgesetzbuchs für den Norddeutschen Bund ("Paragraph 143 of the Prussian Penal Code and Its Maintenance as Paragraph 152 of the Draft of a Penal Code for the North German Confederation"). The pamphlet was written by Karl-Maria Kertbeny, but published anonymously.

10. Dialectic: Institutions / Individuals

The doctrine of Klarismus and the practice of Uranism was to celebrate the cult of romantic friendship, pedagogical eros and love unbound by social mores.

Uranism was a direct confrontation with the medical description of homosexuality as a pathological condition in that it valorized chivalric love, honor and the celebration of difference as spiritual values. 

First Wave

Uranism, The Sapphists, Gertrude Stein's Circle, The Bloomsbusy Group, U.S. Salons and Galleries, The Harlem Renaissance, The Lost Generation, The New Women, The Other Surrealists

First Wave Exhibitions

Sanctuarium Artis Elisarion in Minusio (Locarno), Switzerland. 

Gluck, Third Exhibition 1932.

Gluck, 1895-1978: Memorial Exhibition, December 15, 1980-January 30, 1981 London: Fine Art Society.

Gluck: Art & Identity, Brighton Museum & Art Gallery, 2018

Gluck, National Portriature Gallery, 2016.

Romaine Brooks, first exhibition at the Durand-Ruel gallery, 1910

The Art of Romaine Brooks, Smithsonian American Art Musueum, June 16-October 1, 2016

Duncan Grant, A Retrospective Exhibiton, Tate London, May 12-June 20, 1959

Duncan Grant, Paintings and Drawings, 1922-1960, 303 Galley, New York.

Harden Hartley, One man exhibition, Alfred Stieglitz Gallery 219, 1909

Harden Hartley, Galerie Goltz, Berlin, 1913

Harden Hartley, Alfred Stieglitz Gallery 219, 1914

Barthe: His Life in Art, The Museum of African American Art, July 19-Sept 27, 2009.

Richmond Barthe: Harlem Renaissance Sculptor, Dixon Gallery and Gardens, Mephis, TN, 2010.

Richmond Barthe, NCCU Art Museum, Durham, NC. Feb 4-April 17, 2011

Richamond Barthe, Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, Lincoln, NE, 2011.

Richmond Barthe, The August Wilson Center, Pittsburg, Pa, 2012. 

Tamara de Lempicka, 1922 Paris 
Salon d'Automne 1922, Paris, France 
The catalog presented Lempicka as a man: LEMPITZKY (Tamara de) Born in Warsaw, Polish (French masculine form) 1 Place Wagram. 

Tamara de Lempicka, 1923 Paris 
Salon des Indépendants 1923, Paris, France 
The catalog indicates: LEMPITZKY (Tamara de) Born in Warsaw, Polish (French masculine form) 1 place Wagram, 17e.

Tamara de Lempicka: 1889-1980, Vittoriano Complex in Rome, July 3, 2011. 

Tamara de Lempicka in Verona, Palazzo Forti, Italy, Sept 19, 2015 - JAn 31, 2016.

Tamara de Lempicka, Soul Arts Center, Soul, South Korea, Dec. 10, 2016-March 2017.



Second Wave

Post Essentialists (Ab-Ex), Fluxus, Happenings


Third Wave

The New Figuration, Pop Art, Neo-Expressionism, Neo-Geo, The Return to Beauty, 




STUDY GUIDE: Gender, Curating and Human Motivational Models

Maslow's Motivational Model First Wave: Avant-Gardism 1900-1940s Second Wave: Activism 1940s-1980s Third Wave: Access1990s-Present
D-Needs (Deficiency) Defense against Diagnosis Defense against Criminalization Defense of Legal Rights
G-Needs (Growth) Subculture Coded Communication Celebration
GB Needs (Growth-Being) Self-Expression / Organization Self-Realization / Politicization Self-Transcendence / Equality


Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow's Motivational Model Hierarchy of Needs Description of Needs
D-Needs (Deficiency) Biological and physiological needs Air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep
D-Needs (Deficiency) Safety needs Protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, etc.
D-Needs (Deficiency) Love and belongingness needs Affiliating, being part of a group (family, friends, work).
D-Needs (Deficiency) Esteem needs Esteem for Self / Other
G-Needs (Growth) Cognitive needs knowledge and understanding
G-Needs (Growth) Aesthetic needs Beauty, Balance, Form
GB-Needs (Growth-Being) Self-actualization needs self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth, peak expereinces,
GB-Needs (Growth-Being) Transcendence needs mystical experiences



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