Art Exhibition Class

Exhibition Planning &
Gallery Management

Curatorial History > Digital Cliff Notes


STUDY GUIDE: Curatorial Histories

CURATORIAL HISTORIES First Wave: Old Musuem Second Wave: The New Museum Third Wave: The "New" New Museum
Question Tradition(s) Innovation Creating a Sensation
Method Categorization Cannonization Contestation
Vision Education Information Experience
Theory Repository Civic Center Forum for Events
Narrative Conservation Collections Perpetual re-evaluation
Direction Past-oriented Present-oriented Future-oriented
Space Functional Ideological Permeable 
Power Aristocratic Leisure / Collector Class Mass Audience / Creative Class
Politic State Collections Institutional Collections Private Collections and Temporary Exhibitons
Dialectic Private / Public Old / New Permanent / Impermanent 


Primary Dialectic: Thesis: Pre-Colonialism / Anti-Thesis: Colonialism / Synthesis: Post-Colonialism (from  Ptolemy  to the Present)

Old "Old" Museum (Secondary) Dialectic: Alexandria: Thesis: old acquisitions, Anti-Thesis: new collections , Synthesis: categorization

4 Waves of Pyscho-socio-cultural Development: Jean Gebser, The Four Mutuation of Consciousness / The Four Mutations of Culture

Old "Old" Museum, Archaic-Magic | First Wave: Old Museum, Magical-Mythical | Second Wave: New Museum, Mythical-Plural | Third Wave: New "New" Museum, Plural-Intergral | Fourth Wave: "Renewed" Museum, Super-Integral |


THE OLD "OLD" MUSEUM: The Library at Alexandria / The Pergammum Library

1. Question: Tradition(s)


  • Assyrian Empire: Mesopotamian Royal Libraries already resembled Museums and had a wide vareity of comparative literature.
  • Egyptian Kingdom: Old, Middle and New provided a fusion of art and writing as there was no formal distinction between art and text other than when it came to the archiving of scrolls.
  • Alexandria: Introduced the first division of art and literature in the form of divisions between Museum and Library  with the aim of holding in one place all of the knowledge ever accumulated by “man”.

"A Great Library was established there to become the memory bank of the ancient world, filled with papyrus and parchment scrolls containing everything from poetry, drama and literature, to advanced treatises on mathematics, anatomy, geography, physics and astronomy and a separate museum (called a shrine to the muses)."


2. Method: Categorization

At Alexandria it was Callimachus who devised a systems called the Pinakes (tables) which separated books by genre and subsection, listed authors alphabetically, and offered biographies and lists of other works, including titles and even the opening words of the text. With this accomplished, translations began pouring out and Alexandria was the first global information center, and perhaps even a a precursor to the modern internet.

Pinakes contained:

  • Genre
  • Subsection
  • Authors lised Alphabetically
  • Biographies that listed other works, titles and the opening words of the text


3. Vision: (Universal) Education and the Universal Musuem

The founding creed of Alexandria was “Knowledge is Power”. The collections, information sharing and global exhcange of information at Alexandria resulted in: 


Alexandria had hydrolics, pressurized stream, mechanical birds that sang, statues that blew trumpets, temples doors that opened and closed automatically controlled by lighting and extinguishing fires. Alexandria was an immersive, interactive, city, the ancient equivalent of our modern day cities and univesities. 


4. Theory: Respository

At first the library was built up by acquisitions, gifts, bequests and loans. Under Ptolemy Demetrius was assigned large sums of money with a view toward collecting, if possible, all the books in the world, and by arranging purchases and transcriptions he carried the king’s design to completion as far as he was able. When he was asked… about how many thousands of books were already collected he replied “Above two hundred thousand my king; to round out the number of half a million.”

Two Phases of Collecting:

1st Phase:

  • acquisitions
  • gifts
  • bequests 
  • loans


2nd Phase:

  • A campaign for global acqusitions (200,000 to 500,000)


5. Narrative: Conservation (Problematic)

Library of Alexandria (331-48 B.C.): Home to one of the first museums burnt to the ground in 48 B.C. 

No standard of safety and procedures, the library may have suffered several fires or acts of destruction, of varying degrees, over many years.

The troops of Ceasar accidentally burnt down the library after the siege of 48 B.C.


6. Direction: Past-Oriented (Mouseion, under the protection of the Muses)

Alexandria was built around a simple yet staggeringly ambitious idea: that of holding in one place all of the knowledge ever accumulated by “man”. A Great Library was established there to become the memory bank of the ancient world, filled with papyrus and parchment scrolls containing everything from poetry, drama and literature, to advanced treatises on mathematics, anatomy, geography, physics and astronomy… and of course, a museum!

The musuem was the home of music or poetry, a philosophical school and library such as Plato's Academy, also a storehouse of texts. Museum / Mouseion, connoting an assemblage gathered together under the protection of the Muses, was the title given to a collection of stories about the esteemed writers of the past assembled by Alcidamas, an Athenian sophist of the fourth century BC.


7. Space: Functional

“And the city contains the most beautiful public precincts and also the royal palaces, which constitute one-fourth or even one-third of the whole circuit of the city; for just as each of the kings, from the love of splendor, would invest himself at his own expense with a residence, in addition to those already built, so that now, to quote the words of the poet, “there is building upon building.” All, however, are connected with one another and the harbour, even those that lie outside the harbour. The Museum is also a part of the royal palaces; it has a public walk, an Exedra with seats, and a large house, in which is the common mess-hall of the men of learning who share the Museum. This group of men not only hold property in common, but also have a priest in charge of the Museum, who, formerly was appointed by kings, but is now appointed by Caeser. The Sema also, is part of the royal palaces. This was the enclosure which contained the burial-places of the kings of Alexander.” - Strabo of Amaseia

“What reason is there for me even to speak of the number of books, the establishment of libraries, and the collection in the Museum…considering how they are all the memories of everyone?” - Athenaeus

At Alexandria there was:

  • a roofed walkway
  • an arcade of seats
  • a communal dining room
  • private study rooms
  • residential quarters
  • lecture halls
  • theaters
  • a room devoted to the study of anatomy
  • an installation for astronomical observations
  • did not have a collection of sculpture and painting presented as works of art at there was at The Library of Peramum


8. Power: Aristocratic / Social-Democratic

More than 1,000 scholars lived in the Mouseion at a given time. Staff members and scholars were salaried by the Mouseion and paid no taxes. They also received free meals, free room and board, and free servants. The Mouseion was administered by a priest appointed by the Pharaoh.

"Analogous to the modern Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton or to the Collège de France in Paris."[5] In the 21st century, the nearest equivalent is a university." - Germain Bazin


9. Politic: State Collections

Under the Ptolemy dynasty, a law was passed that all books that entered the city were immediately passed to the scribes for copying, and more often than not, the copy was given back to the owner, and not the original.

Under Ptolemy the III, the same mission was extended by sending missionaries to all the kings and leaders of the world, asking to borrow their books for copying, with the Ptolemy sending back fresh copies to the original empires. 


10. Dialectic: Private / Public 

Since private works were confiscated, copied and returned, and scholars were nominated, traveled and otherwise applied to have access, the dichtomy of privilege and the public good were played out at Alexandria around who was inclided at the table of learned men.


First Wave Curators: Old "Old" Musuems

Ptolemy (old acquisitions)

Demetrius (new collections)

Callimachus (categorization)




1. Question: Traditions

Most closely resembled a temple


2. Method: Categorization

Focus was on collections and expansion


3. Vision: Education

Aim to be meaningful and informative


4. Theory: Repository

Age of State Acquisitions: Order, instruction and classification


5. Narrative: Conservatiom

Classical in Design and Intent (Designed to support the idea of preservation for all time)


6. Direction: Past-Oriented

The mission of the "universal museum" as the bringing together of all past cultures.


7. Space: Functional

Chronological and geogrpahical organization of collections


8. Power: Aristocratic

Access was governed by the rules of protocol and aristocratic etiquette.


9. Politic: State Collections

The British Museum, Founded as a "Universal Museum" 

  • The library and collections of Sir Hans Sloane
  • Harleian Library Manuscripts
  • The manuscript collection of the Cotton Family
  • The manuscript library assembled by the Earls of Oxford


The Louvre and Musee Nepolean: "The Universal Museum"

  • The Louvre saw the arrival of Europe’s greatest treasures in Paris. In the wake of Napolean’s conquests, the Royal collections Belgium, Italy, Austria and  Germany, as well as the Vatican, had been systematically stripped  of their choicest exhibitions and within a few years virtually the entire post-Renaissance cannon of art was united in the French capital. 
  • The Napoleanic dream of the “universal museum” did not last long after the battel of Waterloo in June 1815 and the congress of Vienna in the autumn of the same year, which decreed that most of the works art be quickly returned to their rightful owners.


The Prussian State Museum

  • The Pergamon alter to Berlin in 1878
  • Heinrich Schlieman’s finds from Troy (Priam’s Treasure)
  • The Istar Gate from Babylon
  • key pieces from excavations at Olympia and Amarna
  • Islamic and Far Eastern art departments 
  • There was not a civilization or period in history that was not represented in Germany at the Prussian State Museum


10. Dialectic: Public / Private

From Aristocratic access to public educational use


First Wave: Old Museums

The British Museum 

The Louvre

Prussian State Museum


First Wave Curators: Old Musuems

Sir Hans Sloane, The (early) British Museum (Family Collection)

Comte d’Angiviller, The Louvre (State Collections)

Dominique-Vivant Denon, The Louvre (Nepoleanic Collections)

William Bode, The Prussian/Berlin State Museums (International Collections)

Hugo von Tschudi, The National Gallerie (Contemporary Collections)

Ludwig Justi, The National Gallerie (Avant-Garde Collections)





1. Question: Innovation

Twofold function for the New Museum: Highlighting the inherent (formal) qualities of the work through the neutralization of context and content, while, at the same time, remaining virtually invisible as a background, thus obscuring this very process of effacement.


2. Method: Cannonization

Age of Institutional Acquisitions: Work of art as a specimen


3. Vision: Information

New Museum was to educate about new trends in art

Proposed a disembodied eye and a scientific gaze 


4. Theory: Civic Center

Attended by the bourgeois and inviting to a mass audience


5. Narrative: Collections

Neo-Classical in style and thinking (Modern International Style and designed to offer comparative collections) 

The museum itself was laid out to produce a “narrative effect” and proposed a pseudo-scientific developmental structure through the arrangement of its collections.


6. Direction: Present-Oriented

Aim to provide a taxonomy and a genealogy of works 

There was to be no participation with objects and no distractions


7. Space: Ideological

Most closely resembled a church

In place of the display of works of art by “national schools” typical of nineteenth-century museums, MOMA substituted an installation illustrating Barr’s conception of art as a sequence of developments out of each other. 

The “New Museum” was modeled on the artist’s studio as laboratory.


8. Power: Liesure / Collector Class

Pass time for aristocratic culture and the leisure class


9. Politic: Institutional Collections

Period of De-politicization: Protection of the public museum from state interference


10. Dialectic: Old / New

The new musuem not only had collections but it collected new works, promoted new movements and sought out new trends in advanced art.


Second Wave: New Museums



Tate Modern


Second Wave Curators: New Museums

William R. Valentine, MoMA (Curating by "Period Rooms")

Alfred J. Barr, MoMA (Curating by Genealogical Influence) 

Peggy Guggenheim, Guggenheim (Curating by the look of "The New")

Thomas Krens, Guggenheim (Curating as a Global Brand) 





1. Question: Creating a Sensation

Attracting new audiences, competing in a media saturated environment and courting controversy


2. Method: Contestation

Democratic inclusivity that constantly re-evaluated the legacy of cultural traditions as well as offering corrective narratives to art history


3. Vision: Experience

Democratic experience of education and recreation


4. Theory: Forum for Events: Event center

Most closely resembles a stage


5. Narrative: Perpetual Re-valuation

Equality of cultural opportunity and social responsibility in programming for all


6. Direction: Future-Oriented

Gathering together the resources of the present to imagine the futures of tomorrow


7. Space: Permeable

Against the Classical in form and content (Organic Postmodern Museum and self-reflexive curating, based on perpetual crisis)


8. Power: Mass Audience / Creative Class

International Audience, globalization and cultural tourism


9. Politic: Private Collections and Temproary Exhibitions

Deaquistioning and the touring of private collections.


10. Dialectic: Permanent / Impermanent

Collections, Narrativization, and Cannonization no longer hold a place of primacy.


Third Wave: The "New" New Museums



The New Museum


Third Wave Curators: New Museums

Pontus Hulten, Pompidou, (International Dailogues and  the Museum as an elastic and open space) 

Marcia Tucker, The New Museum (Self-Reflexive Curatorial Practice and the Museum as laboratory) 



Old "Old" Musuems: Pre-wave / Pre-Museum

Old acquisitions, New collections, Methods of categorization and preservation

Old Musuems: 1st Wave

Family Collection, State Collections, Colonial Collections

New Musuems: 2nd Wave

International Collections, Contemporary Collections, Avant-Garde Collections

Curating by "Period Rooms", Curating by Genealogical Influence, Curating by the look of "The New" 

New "New" Musuems: 3rd Wave

Curating as a Global Brand and the Museum without walls, International Dailogues and  the Museum as an elastic and open space 

Self-Reflexive Curatorial Practice and the Museum as laboratory 

The Renewed Musuem: 4th Wave...




5 Waves of Pyscho-socio-cultural Development: Jean Gebser, The Four Mutuation of Consciousness / The Four Mutations of Culture, (The Ever Present Origin)

Old "Old" Museum, Archaic-Magic | First Wave: Old Museum, Magical-Mythical | Second Wave: New Museum, Mythical-Plural | Third Wave: New "New" Museum, Plural-Intergral | Fourth Wave: "Renewed" Museum, Super-Integral |


10 Study Guides: Historical Structure and Meaning in Museology

1. Structure: Period and Narratives (Space-Time)

STRUCTURE Museum Periodization Narrative Time-Space(s)
Archaic-Magic Old "Old" Museum Ancient World to the Dark Ages Cosmic and Mythological Narratives
Magical-Mythical Old Museum Renaissance to the Baroque Mythological and Religious Narratives
Mythical-Mental (Plural) New Musuem Enlightnment to Modernism Spiritual and Secular Narratives
Mental (Plural)-Integral New "New" Museum Postmoderism to Pluralism Personal and Community Narratives
Super-Integral Re-Newed Musuem Integral to Super Integral Global and Cosmic Narratives


In art The Ever-Present Origin always already exists as each artist will rehearse the conscious learning curve of moving from 1) Archiac, non-perspectival imagery based on the direct identification with materials, undifferentiated participation and emotion with regard to expression that is generall constutive of a somnolent state of making. The second mutation of consciousness will be generally representative of the 2) Magical, pre-perspectival types of representation that engage with polarities (light and dark, shadow and color, line and form), in an effort to symbolize the idea of nature realized through emotion that is constituite of somniative states. The third mutation of consciousness will be generally representative of a 3) Mythological, unperspectival and spaceless style that embraces a natural sense of temporicity as the idea of polarity becomes enlarged, and the psyche itslef is realized in imagery giving a greater sense of the inner life of humanity beyond the two fromer sleeping states of consciousness. The fourth mutation of consciousness will be generally representative of the 4) Mental, perspectival, dialectic (triangluar) acts of unification which are always fragmantary in that they are decidely outward-related to the world in depicting the spatial world realized in thought.  The fifth mutation of consciousness will be generally representative of a 5) Integral, aperspectival, four-dimensional space that represents an integration of the dimensions or a space-and-time-free aperspectival world where the free (or freed) consciousness has at its disposal all latent as well as actual forms of space and time, without haveing to either deny them or be fully subject to them. This integral state lets the other states and forms of consciousness shine through new modes of representation even with a proporational decrease of the pre-spatial and pre-temporal presence of origin. In this state conscious spirit is demonstrated through integration. At this point eahc person is to an every greater degree merely a participant in the whole as what takes place here is perhaps less a weakening or distantiation from origin than a remarable kind of rearrangement, because the whole ultimately cannot be lost since the archiac structure or origin is irrovcable present. This is generall representative of the ideal of mutations in consciousness from sleeping states, to waking states to integral states and finally, supe-integral states. 

Archiac / Magic: Sleeping States

Mythical / Mental: Waking States

Integral / Super-Inegral: Fully Conscious States


Diagrams 2-10 from From The Ever-Present Origin, Jean Gebser

2. Structure: Dimensioning, Perspective, Emphasis

STRUCTURE Dimensioning Perspective Emphasis
Archaic Zero-Dimensional None Pre-Spatial, Pretemporal
Magic One-Dimensional Pre-perspectival Spaceless, Timeless
Mythical Two-Dimensional Unperspectival Spaceless, Natural Temporicity
Mental Three-Dimensional Perspectival Spatial, Abstract Temporicity
Integral Four-Dimensional Aperspectival Space-Free, Time-Free


"Every mutation of consciousness that constituted a new structure of consciousness was accompnaied by the appearance and affectuality of a new dimension. This clearly underscores the interdependence of consciousness and a space-time world; for each unfolding of consciousness there is a corresponding unfolding of dimensions. An increase in one corresponds to an increase in the other; the emergence of consciousness and the dimensioning imply and govern each other." - Gebser, The Ever-Present Origin, Pg.116

Zero-Dimensional: Archaic societies, the drawing of childern and times of cultural decline like the dark ages all have figures are pictured without perspective in a prespatial, pretemporal arrangement.

One-Dimensional: Magical Societies and periods like the gothic rely on totemic figuers which are directly imbued with powers that are beyond space and time, they are fundamentally archetypal in nature.

Two-Dimensional: Unperspectival figures appear in mythical and early religous cultures such that elements are arranged by order of importance, or linearly in order to tell a story through pictograms. This gives them a natural sense of temporicity in terms of sequential ordering.

Three-Dimensional: Representative of having mastered perspectival relations, temporal happening become less linear and more implied, narrativized or represented in a manner other than sequential ordering. This kind of representation is most strongly associated with the period of the Renaissance to Romanticism.

Four-Dimensionality: "Represents ultimately an integration of the dimensions. It results in a space-and-time-free aperspectival world where the free (or freed) consciousness has at its disposal all latent as well as actual forms of space and time, without haveing to either deny them or be fully subject to them." - Gebser, pg. 117.

Integral Perspective: relies on Gebser's notion of art and consciousness being able compatible with the notion of diaphainon... "an intransitive verb meaning literally 'that which shines through' and thus also 'that which is transparent'. Its particular emphasis is on that something is or becomes visible or perceptible through something else, without implying that what is visible or perceptible has to shine or become resplendent."


3. Structure: Sign, Essence, Properties

STRUCTURE Sign Essence Properties
Archaic None Identitfy (Integrality) Integral
Magic Point Unity (Oneness) Non-Directional Unitary, Interwoven or Fusion
Mythical Circle Polarity (Ambivalence) Circularity and Polar Complementarity
Mental Triangle Duality (Opposition) Directed Dual Oppositionality
Integral Sphere Diaphaneity (transparency) Presnetiating, Diphanous, "rendering whole"


"As is the case in dimensioning, it is again evident from the sequence of signs that we can observe an increase or expansion in the course of the mutational series... the signs convey the extension of the point to circle, the break-up of the circle by the triangle, that is, the division of the circle into sections - the quantitative increase in the extent of mutations... the increase of dimension by which consciousness gainis extent and scope is inversely proportional to the qualitative character of individual structures, which undergo, in each instance a reduction or diminuation ofo intensity."

Archiac: Part of the relations that consist of the natural world, both in terms of identity and integral relations with the world.

Magic: Assumption of the power of object, totems, ritual obsevences and cerimonies to intervene in the natural order. Somewhat akin to the animist verison of the world, made up of the world as a series of forces, fusions, interwoven unities but without an idea of developmental schemata. 

Mythical: Large scale asumptions about greater designs, Gods an Godesses, ethics and morality accompany the mythical dimension. "Polarity further expands the arena in which consciousness operates, providing the tension necessary for everything that lives and unfolds. At the same time, the originary presence of the whole is lessened or dimmed. It can no longer be experienced to its orginal degree as wholeness but only through an act of completion or complimentarity." - Gebser, pg. 118-119. The mythical is acts as this supposed completion or holds a complementary function with regard to how we experinece the original wholeness.

Mental: Assumption of the difference between pre-modern and modern secular and/or sceintific beliefs, where the mind represents the directed dualism of overcoming the tensions of paradigmatic systems of thought, belief and new discoveries. " noted earlier, the further dimensional incrementation that drives polar self-complimentarity into the dualistic division and measurability of oppositions does not even allow for an act of completion but at most for an act of unification which is always fragmantary." Gebser, pg. 119. The mental world allows for the parcelling up of distinctive disciplines, types and kinds of knowledge, as well as thier perpetual contestation and overcoming, reducing the sense of immediacy and interconnectedness that accompanies the orginary presence of the whole.

Integral: "The qualitative spatio-temporal system of relationships increases to the degree of the growth of consciousness and is recognizable in the increase of dimensions and reifaction. Yet, there is still at the same time a proporational decrease of the pre-spatial and pre-temporal presence of origin; man is no longer whole. Henceforth, he is to an every greater degree merely a participant in the whole, although the whole ultimately cannot be lost since the archiac structure or origin is irrovcable present." Gebser, pg.119.

Integral Perspective: "What takes place here is perhaps less a weakening or distantiation from origin than a remarable kind of rearrangement." Gebser, 119.

4. Structure: Potentiality, Objective and Subjective Aspects

STRUCTURE Potentiality Objective (external aspect of the world) Subjective (internal, energy or initiator) 
Archaic Integrality Unconscious Spirit Emotion
Magic Unity by Unification and Hearing / Harkening Nature Emotion
Mythical Unification by Complementarity and Correspondance Soul / Psyche Imagination
Mental Unification by Synthesis and Reconciliation Space-World Abstraction
Integral Integrality by Integration and Presentation Conscious Spirit Concretion


"If we are to summarize in a third grouping those aspects which can bring us a step further toward resolving the questions that have arisen, this cross-section will have to make evident what we have designated 'the potentialities of the structures'. To the extenet that these are potentialities which consciousness opens up through mutations, we must be aware of the particular aspects of world with whcih respective potentialities of consciousness associate, that is, which aspect takes on the nature of consciousness for a given structure. In addition, we must also become aware of the energy - the movement and dynamism - which is the agent or initiator in man of the particualr consciouness emergence." - Gebser 119. 

Archaic: Undifferentiated participation and emotion

Magic: Nature realized through emotion

Mythical: Psyche realized in imagery

Mental: Spatial world realized in thought

Integral: Conscious spirit demonstrated through integration as concretization

Integral Perspective: "...the incrementation of consciousness goes hand in hand with a 'diminuation' of the relation to the realizable whole; we do not lost this relation to the whole completely only becasue the presence of the origin cannot be lost, and consequently, it lends to all of the structures which mutate from it and constitute us this same imperishability." - Gebser, pg. 120.


5. Structure: Degree, Consciousness, Relation

STRUCTURE Degree Consciousness Relation
Archaic Deep Sleep Universe-Related Breathing-Spell
Magic Sleep Outer related (Nature) Exhaling
Mythical Dream Inner-related (Psyche) Inhaling
Mental Wakefulness Outer-related (Spatial) Exhaling
Integral Transparency Inward-related Inhaling or Breathing-Spell


"We do not attribute consciousness to these first to states (which might be designated as somnolent and somniative, i.e., dream states repsectively), but only a form or degree of consciousness in view of their function in the awakening process reflected by the mutational series." Gebser, pg 121. 

Archiac: "The archiac structure might be thought of as the silent pause before the breath." Gebser, 121.

Magical: "The magical structure in turn, inasmuch as it is definitely outer-related toward nature, is a first exhalation, one which we do not wish to postulate for the moment as a form of "being exhaled", as this could immediately illicit the underserved reproach of being animistic, a likely charge by the dualistic and anthropocentric mentality prevelant today." Gebser, 121.

Mythical: "...the mythical structure - definitely inner - i.e., psyche related - is by comparison to the magic structure definitively suggestive of exhalation; here we find the psychic equivalence of the 'inhaling of heaven' to which we referred earlier."

Mental: "...decidely outward-related to the world, and thus shows a distinctively exhaling character." Gebser, pg.121

Integral Perspective: "These conclusions based on the inner-outer relationship of the various structure parallel the data presented in the preceding chapter; the opening up and mastery (and consequent consciounsness emergence) of nautre by magic man, of the psychic by mythical man, and of the objectified world of space by mental man. In this was the mutational series closes to form a living whole in the symetry recognizable in the alteration of breath, the organic succession of inhalation and exhalation, as well as the pulse of structures." Gebser pg. 121

6. Structure: Forms of Manifestation: Efficient/Defiecient

STRUCTURE Forms of Manifestion: Efficient Forms of Manifestiation: Deficient
Archaic None Presentiment, foreboding
Magic Spell-casting Witchcraft
Mythical Primal Myth (Envisioned Myth) Mythology (Spoken Myth)
Mental Menos (Directive, discoursive) Ratio (Divisive, immoderate, hair-spliting)
Intergal Diaphainon (Open, spiritual "verition") Void (Atomizing dissolution)


7. Structure: Basic Attitude and Agency of Energy, Organal Emphasis

STRUCTURE Basic Attitude and Agency of Energy Organ Emphasis
Archaic Origin: Wisdom  --
Magic Vital: Instinct, Drive, Emotion Viscera -- Era
Mythical Psychic: Imagination, Sensibility, Disposition Heart -- Mouth
Mental Cerebral: Reflection, Abstraction, Will/Volition Brain -- Eye
Intergal Integral: Concretion, Rendering Diaphanous, "verition" Vertex


8. Structure: Froms of Realization and Though: Basis and Mode

STRUCTURE Forms of Realization and Thought: Basis Forms of Realization and Thought: Mode
Archaic  -- Originary
Magic Empathy and Identification: Hearing Pre-rational, pre-causual analogical
Mythical Imagination and Utterance, Contemplation and Voicing Irrational: non-causual, polar
Mental Conceptualizing and Reflection: Seeing and Measuring Rational: Casual, Directed
Intergal Concretion and Integration: Verition and Transparency Arational: Acausal, Integral


9. Structure: Forms of Expression, Froms of Assertion or Articulation

STRUCTURE Forms of Expression Forms of Assertion or Articulation
Archaic --- ---
Magic Magic: Graven Images, Idols, Ritual Petition (Prayer): being heard
Mythical Mythologeme: Gods, Symbols, Mysteries Wishes (Ideals: Fulfillment, wish-"(pipe)-dreams"
Mental Philosopheme: God, Dogma (allegory, Creed), Method Volition: attainment
Intergal Eteologeme: Divinity, Synairsis, Diaphany Verition: present


10. Structure: Relationships: Temporal, Social, General

STRUCTURE Relationships: Temporal Relationships: Social Relationships: General
Archaic --- --- ---
Magic Undifferentiated Tribal World (clan/kith and kin) Natural Egoless / Terresterial
Mythical Predominately Past-oriented (recollection, muse) Paternal world (ancestor-worship) predominantly martriarchal Egoless, "we" oriented, psychic
Mental Predominately future oriented (purpose and goal) World of the first born son, idividuality (child-adulation) predominantly patriarchial Egocentric / Materialistic
Integral Presentiating Humankind: Neither Matriarchy nor Patriarchy but integrum Ego-free, amaterial, apsychic







Week 1

The Curator’s Egg: The Evolution of the Museum Concept from the French Revolution to the Present Day.

By Karsten Schubert.

[  ] Sections I.


Week 2

The Curator’s Egg: The Evolution of the Museum Concept from the French Revolution to the Present Day.

By Karsten Schubert.

[  ] Sections II and III.


Week 3

Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy.

By Hugh H. Genoways and Mary Anne Andrei.

[  ] Chapter 9: Purposes and Aims of Modern Museums. By Fredric A Lucus

[  ] Chapter 12: Museums and the People. By Erwin H. Barbour

[  ] Chapter 17: The Use and Abuse of Museums. By W. Stanley Jevons

[  ] Chapter 18: The Relationships and Responsibilties of Museums. By George Brown Goode

[  ] Chapter 19: Modern Museums: Presidential Address to the Museums Association at the Meeting in London, 3rd, July, 1893. By William Henry Flower


Week 4

Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy.

By Hugh H. Genoways and Mary Anne Andrei.

[  ] Chapter 21: The New Museum. By John Cotton Dana

[  ] Chapter 22: The Museum Conscience. By Joseph Grinnell

[  ] Chapter 44: Museums and Their Purpose. By Newton H. Winchell


Week 5

Inventing the Louvre: Art, Politics, and the Question of the Modern Museum in Eighteenth-Century Paris

[  ] Chapter 3: The Revolutionary Louvre


Week 6

Reinventing the Museum: The Evolving Conversation on the Paradigm Shift.

By Gail Anderson.

[  ] Chapter 3: The Museum, a Temple or a Forum. By Duncan F. Cameron

[  ] Chapter 6: Deaccessioning: The American Perspective. By Marie C. Malaro

[  ] Chapter 14: The Experience Economy. By Jospeh Pine and James H. Gilmore

[  ] Chapter 15: From Being About Something to Being For Somebody: The Ongoing Transformation of the American Museum


Week 7

Inside the White Cube: The Ideology of the Gallery Space.

By Brian O’Doherty.

[  ] Sections I, II, III, and IV.


Week 8

Contemporary Cultures of Display.

Edited by Emma Barker

[  ] Case Study 1: The Modern Art Museum

[  ] Case Study 2: The Museum in a Postmodern Era: The Musee D’Orsay

[  ] Cast Study 4: Exhibitions of Contemporary Art


Week 9

Thinking About Exhibitions

By Reesa Greenberg, Bruce Ferguson and Sandy Nairne

[  ] Chapter 11: The Discourse of the Museum. By Mieke Bal

[  ] Chapter 21: Postmodernism’s Museum without Wall. By Rosalind Krauss


Week 10

On the Museum’s Ruins.

By Douglas Crimp.

[  ] This is Not a Museum of Art

[  ] The Art of Exhibition

[  ] The Postmodern Museum


Week 11

The Global Contemporary and the Rise of New Art Worlds

Edited by Hans Belting, Andrea Buddensieg and Peter Weibel

[  ] The Plurality of Art Worlds and the New Museum


Week 12

Curating in the 21st Century

Edited by Gavin Wade

[  ] The 21st Century Museum – a preprogrammed game machine?


Week 13

Curating Now: Imaginative Practice / Public Responsibility

Edited by Paula Marincola

[  ] Inventing New Models for the Museum and Its Audience


Week 14

What Makes a Great Exhibition? Questions of Practice.

Edited by Paula Marincola.

[  ] Temple / White Cube / Laboratory. By Iwona Blazwick




Curatorial Histories Curatorial Practice Philosophies of Curating Curatorial Design

The British Musuem, Sir Hans Sloane

The Louvre, Comte d’AngivillerDominique-Vivant Denon

The Prussian State Musuem, William Bode

Berlin, The National Gallery, Hugo von TschudiLudwig Justi

Salon des Refuses

1st Impressionist Exhibition

Salon des Independent

Salon d'autonome

1st Bruke Exhibition

1st Blue Reiter Exhibition

1st Futurist Exhibition

The Last Futurist Exhibition

1st Papers of Surrealism

9th Street Show

Friedrich Kieslerm, New Theater Technique

El Lissitsky, Abstract Cabinet

Marcel Duchamp, Mile of String

Lucio Fontana, Ambient Nero 49' (Light and Space)

Richard Hamilton, An Exhibit 57' (Installation Art) 

Gutai Group 57' (Perfomance) 

Yves Kliein, Le Vide 58' (Conceptualism) 

Aramn, Le Plein (Ephemeral Art) 

Allan Kaprow, Happenings 59-60'

Helio Oiticia, The Grand Nucleus, 60-69' (Environment, Neo-Concreticism) 

Claes Oldenberg, The Store, 61-62'



MoMA, William R. Valentine, Alfred J. Barr

Guggenheim, Peggy GuggenheimThomas Krens

Tate Modern

When Attitudes Become Form

The New Realists (Pop)

Primary Structures (Minimalism)

Art Povera

The January Show (Concpetual Art) 

Information (Institutional Critique) 

A New Spirit in Painting (Neo-Expressionism)

Harold Seezman: When Attitudes Become Forms, The Museum of Obsessions, Agency for Spiritual Migrant Work, Documenta 5, Venice Biennial

Lucy Lippard: Eccentric Abstraction, Number Shows, Six Years, Mixed Blessings

Germano Celant: Arte Povera, Italian Art: 1900-54, Italian Metamorphosis: 1943-68, First Biennial della Monda

Seth Seigelaub: Seigelaub Contemp., The Xerox Book, January 5-31


Pompidou, Pontus Hulten


The New Museum, Marcia Tucker

Sonsbeek 71' (Land Art) 

Doucmenta 5, 10, 11

Freeze 88' (YBA's) 


Whitney Biennial 93'

Traffic 96' (Relational Aesthetics) 



Nato Tompson

Nicholas Bourriaud, Traffic

Claire Bishop, 

Judith Barry, Damaged Goods

Louise Lawler

Fred Wilson, Mining the Musuem

Group Material

General Idea







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